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    Bomb-Proof Logic


    Figures of thought that redefine an issue or word, rhetorical coups de gras, plus rhetorical questions and answers.

     These are the essential figures of Logos, or argument by logic.  Elsewhere you’ll find figures for Pathos (argument by emotion) and Ethos (argument by character).

    antistasis (an-TIH-sta-sis)
    The repeat that changes a word’s meaning.
    Also see this.

    anthypophora (an-thy-POPH-ora)
    The figure that anticipates, and answers, the audience’s objections.

    apagoresis (a-pa-gor-EE-sis)
    The “better not” figure.

    cataplexis (cat-a-PLEEX-is)
    The jeremiad.

    ceratin (se-RAT-in)
    The horns of a dilemma.

    commoratio (co-mo-RAT-io)
    The idea repeater. It restates the same point several times.

    correctio (cor-REK-tio)
    The correction.

    diatyposis (die-ah-tie-PO-sis)
    The figure that gives advice.

    dicaeologia (die-key-oh-LOW-gia)
    The figure of excuse.

    The damned-if-you-do-or-don’t figure.

    dirimens copulatio (dear-ih-mens cop-u-LAT-ee-oh)
    The but-wait-there’s-more figure.
    Also see this.

    enthymeme (EN-thih-meem)
    Rhetoric’s version of the syllogism. The enthymeme stakes a claim and then bases it on commonly accepted opinion. A little packet of logic, it can provide protein to an argument filled with emotion.
    Also see this.

    epergesis (eh-per-GEE-sis)
    The clarifier.
    Also see this.

    epexegesis (ee-pex-eh-GEE sis)
    Alternative spelling of epergesis.

    epiphonema (eh-pih-fo-NEE-ma)
    The memorable summary.

    The rhetorical question.

    eutrepismus (eu-tra-PIS-mus)
    The enumerating figure.

    exemplum (ex-EM-plum)
    An example that backs up an argument.

    exergasia (ex-er-GAS-ia)
    The restatement.  It repeats thoughts in different words.

    hypophora (hie-PAH-for-uh)
    A figure that answers your own question. (What’s the secret to comedy? Timing!)

    metastasis (met-AH-stah-sis)
    Skipping over an awkward matter.

    parenthesis (pa-REN-thih-sis)
    The "by-the-way" figure.

    prolepsis (pro-LEP-sis)
    The fight-fire-with-fire tactic. The speaker anticipates the opponent’s points and undercuts them in advance.

    ratiocinatio (ra-tio-cin-AH tio)
    Reasoning through questions.

    reductio ad absurdum
    Taking an opponent’s argument to its illogical conclusion.

    syncrisis (SIN-crih-sis)
    The not-that-but-this figure.